Scaling up cell culture can be challenging due to the limited surface area for cell growth. Traditional small-scale methods, such as plastic flasks, become impractical when attempting to grow cells on a large scale. Technologies like multi-layer flasks and cell factories can improve the surface area-to-volume ratio, but they are not scalable solutions. Bioreactors, which are large stirring tanks, offer a more efficient and automated solution for cell culture. However, these are not suitable for growing cells that require a substrate, such as adherent cells. To overcome this limitation, microcarriers have been developed to allow the growth of these types of cells in suspension in a bioreactor. Despite the challenges, advances in technology and research are helping to mitigate limitations and enable successful large-scale cell culture.